Chemical Flooding Technologies

Chemical
Formulations

Chemical Formulations

Chemical Flooding Technologies has developed a phased approach to chemical flooding projects that allows clients to maximise resources and minimize risk. If the results of any phase makes it clear that a project will not be economically viable, the client will have the option to discontinue.

Our process includes initial laboratory analysis, optimization studies, establishing a field development plan, and ongoing execution and management of the improved oil recovery project. Outlined below are the typical milestones and timeframes associated with developing a chemical flood formulation and injection protocol.

Step #1

Initial Discussion

Timeframe: 1-2 Weeks

CFT and the client will discuss the formation characteristics of the site and the scope of commercial project. There is no cost associated with this initial discussion.

The initial screening is aimed at determining the suitability of the field for chemical EOR and the likelihood of commercial success. If the field is a suitable candidate, Chemical Flooding Technologies will begin laboratory studies followed by single- and multiple-well field pilots. The client will need to complete the standard chemical flood screening form and return it to CFT.

Step #2

Chemical Analysis

Timeframe: 1 month

The development of a chemical formulation is the first step in developing the protocols for a successful chemical flood.  Each formation brine and oil is unique and requires a unique composition of chemical compounds for successful mobilization of crude oil in the target formation.   The following specific tasks are accomplished in this step:

  1. Brine Analysis
    1. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) determination.
    2. Hard water ion analysis, sodium ion, soluble iron and soluble oxygen analysis.
  2. Oil Analysis
    1. Estimated Average Carbon Number (EACN) determination.
    2. Use of EACN with a Characteristic Curvature Model to predict microemulsion composition.
    3. Measurement of viscosity at reservoir temperature.

For this step, CFT will need fluid samples (8 gallons of crude oil and 12 gallons of brine) recovered from the target formation.  The brine sample needs to be collected using a specific sampling method.  Immediately after recovering the brine from a production well a cap of 3 inches of crude oil needs to be floated on top of the brine and the headspace in the sample container needs to be minimized.  For an additional fee, CFT can acquire the samples in the field.

At the conclusion of Step #2, crude oil and brine properties will be determined.  Possible chemical compounds in the formation brine at formation temperature will be established and the project will progress to Step #3.

Step #3

Primary Formulation

Timeframe: 2-4 weeks

The compounds identified in the previous step are evaluated by microemulsion studies to identify low interfacial tension systems. Interfacial tension (IFT) measurements are used to optimize the chemical formulation.  The chemical formulation is then optimized for mobility control characteristics.  Each chemical compound’s stability in reservoir brine at reservoir temperature will be determined.

Step #4

Optimization Studies

Timeframe: 1-2 weeks

CFT will evaluate the optimum interfacial tension and mobility control formulation to maximize potential output of crude oil. This is accomplished by testing Berea-packed beds that reflect the chemical conditions of the target site. These packed-bed studies are conducted to optimize the injection protocol and determine the chemical volumes required for field pilots and full field development.

The result of this step is an initial optimum injection protocol (OIP), which is determined at the formation temperature.

Step #5

Evaluation and Preliminary Economic Projection

Timeframe: 2-4 weeks

Using the optimum injection protocol developed through the previous steps, CFT will perform core flood studies using Berea cores to evaluate its performance. These tests will be conducted at the Optimum Chemical Composition (OCC) using the Optimum Chemical Composition Concentration (OCCC) at formation temperature, formation pressure, and overburden pressure.

If the optimum injection protocol meets the necessary requirements for mobilization of crude oil in the target formation, a preliminary projection will be developed for the total output over the entire life cycle of the formation exploitation.